gender-neutral language: ngôn ngữ không phân biệt giới tính

Rationale
(cơ sở lý luận)

Proponents (những người đề xướng, chủ trương) of gender-neutral language (ngôn ngữ không phân biệt giới tính / ngôn ngữ phi giới tính) argue that the use of gender-specific language often implies male superiority or reflects an unequal state of society.[1][2] According to The handbook of English linguistics, generic masculine pronouns (đại danh từ giống đực dùng chung*) and gender-specific job titles are instances "where English linguistic convention has historically treated men as prototypical (điển hình nguyên thủy) of the human species."[3] Words that refer to women often devolve in meaning (bị biến thái về nghĩa), frequently taking on (mang thêm, khoác lên) sexual overtones (ngụ ý); for example, the word "mistress", once a title of honor, now denotes a man’s lover, or a "kept" woman.[4]

These differences in usage are criticized (bị phê phán) on two grounds: one, that they reflect a biased state of society,[5] and two, that they help to uphold that state. Studies of children, for instance, indicate that (chỉ ra rằng) the words children hear affect their perceptions (nhận thức) of the gender-appropriateness of certain careers.[6] Other research has demonstrated that men and women apply for jobs in more equal proportions when gender-neutral language is used in the advertisement, as opposed to the generic "he" or "man".[7] Some critics make the further claim that these differences in usage are not accidental, but have been deliberately created for the purpose of upholding a patriarchal society.[8] Proponents of gender-neutral language give many examples of usages that they find problematic

 

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  • generic masculine pronouns: đại danh từ giống đực dùng chung, thay thế hoặc bao gồm cả giống cái eg.>
  • generic noun: a noun that does not specify either masculine or feminine gender: eg.> chairperson, businesspeople (as contrasted with chairman, businessman, etc..)
  • gender-specific job titles: eg.> chairman, businessman
  • human species: nòi giống người, loài người; nhân loại
  • mistress: quý cô; nhân tình, mèo
  • lover: tình nhân, người yêu
  • on two grounds: ở 2 điểm, từ 2 cơ sở
  • biased state: tình trạng thiên lệch, thiên kiến
  • uphold a state: duy trì, giữ mãi không chịu thay đổi
  • accidental: tình cờ, vô tình
  •  deliberately: cố tình, có chủ tâm
  • patriarchal society: xã hội có tính gia trưởng, nam giới làm chủ
  • problematic: có vấn đề

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