CÁO PHÓ: Muammar Gaddafi
One of the world’s most eccentric (lập dị) and unpredictable leaders, Gaddafi dominated the world stage (vũ đài, sân khấu chính trị) for decades.
Gaddafi blamed (quy kết) the uprising against his rule on both al-Qaeda and a ‘colonialist plot’
After 42 years at the helm of (bánh lái, cương vị lãnh đạo) his sparsely populated (thưa dân), oil-rich nation, Muammar Gaddafi – the Arab world’s longest-ruling leader – lost his grip on power (mất kiểm soát, không còn giữ được quyền lực) after a six-month uprising.
Since he lead a successful military coup (đảo chỉnh quân sự) in 1969, Gaddafi styled himself as (tự tô vẽ cho mình thành) Libya’s "brother leader" and the "guide of the revolution", as an almost paternal figure (đấng cha mẹ) looking after (chăm lo) Libya’s six million inhabitants.
His relationship with the rest of the world was erratic (thất thường, bốc đồng). For years, Gaddafi was known in the West as a pariah (kẻ sống ngoài lề của thế giới văn minh), blamed for (bị quy trách nhiệm) the 1988 bombing of a Pan Am jumbo jet over Lockerbie, Scotland, which killed 270 people. After years of denial (chối bỏ) Libya acknowledged responsibility (nhận trách nhiệm), and agreed to pay up to $10m to relatives of victims (thân nhân người bị hại); Gaddafi also declared he would dismantle (giải trừ) all weapons of mass destruction (vũ khí giết người hàng loạt)
Those moves eased him back(giúp, tạo điều kiện dễ dàng cho quay về với) into the international community.
In February, one week into the uprising, Gaddafi vowed to die as a "martyr" (tử vì đạo) on Libyan soil (đất, quê hương)
In February, only weeks after street protests brought down the leaders of Tunisia and Egypt, a rebellion against Gaddafi’s rule (chế độ cai trị) started in the country’s east.
Days after it began, Gaddafi gave a televised speech in which he vowed to hunt down (truy bắt) protesters "inch by inch, room by room, home by home, alleyway by alleyway". The speech caused anger, helping to fuel (đổ thêm dầu, làm tăng) the armed rebellion against (sự nỗi dậy chống lại) him.
Early days (Những ngày sơ khai)
Gaddafi was born in 1942 in the coastal area of Sirte to nomadic parents (trong một gia đình cha mẹ là người du mục). He attended Benghazi University to study geography, but dropped out (bỏ học) to join the army.
He came to power in 1969 at the age of 27 after leading a bloodless coup (cuộc đảo chính không đổ máu) against King Idris.
After seizing power, he laid out a political philosophy based on pan-African, pan-Arab and anti-imperialist ideals, blended with (pha trộn) aspects of Islam. While he permitted private control over small companies, the government controlled the larger ones.
The Libyan leader was an admirer of (người nguỡng mộ) the Egyptian leader Gamal Abdel Nasser and his Arab socialist and nationalist ideology. As a strong member (thành viên có uy thế) of the Non-Aligned Movement during the Cold War era, Gaddafi tried to mold (tạo dựng) the Libyan political system in a way which he said was an alternative to (hình mẫu thay thế cho) both capitalism and communism.
Gaddafi played a prominent role (vai trò nỗi bật) in organising Arab opposition to the 1978 Camp David peace agreement between Egypt and Israel.
Later shunned (bị xa lánh, banished) by a number of Arab states, partly on the basis of his views on the Israeli-Palestinian conflict, Gaddafi’s foreign policy focus shifted from the Arab world to Africa.
The Libyan ruler argued for the creation of a "United States of Africa" – an idea first conceived by US pan-Africanist Marcus Garvey – in which the continent would include "a single African military force, a single currency and a single passport for Africans to move freely around the continent"
He also supported membership among countries in other parts of the world whose citizens are mostly part of the African diaspora (cộng đồng), including Haiti and Jamaica.
The project did not pan out, although some of its ideas influenced the African Union, which was created in 2002. Gaddafi served as chairman of the African Union from 2009 to 2010.
A 2008 meeting of African monarchs proclaimed Gaddafi the continent’s "king of kings".
Crushing dissent (Đàn áp người bất đồng chính kiến)
In 1977 he changed the country’s name to the Great Socialist Popular Libyan Arab Jamahiriyah (State of the Masses) and allowed people to air their views at public congresses.
Some critics defined his rule as a military dictatorship, accusing him of repressing civil society and ruthlessly crushing dissidence. The regime has imprisoned hundreds of people for violating the law and sentenced some to death, according to Human Rights Watch.
At the UN General Assembly (Đại Hội đồng LHQ) in 2009, Gaddafi accused the body (cơ quan này) of being a terrorism group like al-Qaeda [EPA]
Lockerbie bombing (Vụ đánh bom máy bay tại Lockerbie)
Gaddafi maintained a position of anti-imperialism throughout his rule, supporting independence movements against colonial rule around the world. He allegedly gave material support to groups labelled "terrorists" by numerous wealthy countries, including Colombia’s FARC and Northern Ireland’s IRA.
Libya’s alleged involvement in the 1986 bombing of a Berlin nightclub in which two American soldiers were killed prompted US air attacks on Tripoli and Benghazi, killing 35 Libyans. Ronald Reagan, then the US president, called him a "mad dog".
The 1988 Pan Am bombing over Lockerbie is possibly the most well-known and controversial incident associated internationally with Gaddafi.
For many years (trong suốt nhiều năm), Gaddafi denied involvement, resulting in UN sanctions and Libya’s status as a pariah state. Abdel Basset al-Megrahi, a Libyan intelligence agent, was convicted of planting the bomb. In 2003, Gaddafi’s regime formally (chính thức) accepted responsibility for the attack and paid compensation to the families of those who died.
Gaddafi also broke Libya’s isolation from the West in the same year by relinquishing (từ bỏ) his entire inventory of weapons (kho vũ khí) of mass destruction.
In September 2004, George W Bush, the US president at the time, formally ended a US trade embargo as a result of Gaddafi’s scrapping of (hủy bỏ) the arms programme and taking responsibility for Lockerbie.
The normalisation of relations with Western powers allowed the Libyan economy to grow, and the oil industry in particular benefited.
However, Gaddafi and Lockerbie came back into the spotlight in 2009, when al-Megrahi was released from a Scottish prison on the grounds that he was terminally ill (bị bệnh ở giai đoạn cuối) and was nearing death. He returned to Libya to a hero’s welcome from Gaddafi and many Libyans, sparking condemnation by the US and the UK, among others.
In September 2009, Gaddafi visited the US for his first appearance at the UN General Assembly.
His speech was supposed to last 15 minutes, but ended up (rốt cục) lasting over an hour. He tore up a copy of the UN charter (hiến chương LHQ), accused the Security Council of being a terrorist body similar to al-Qaeda, and demanded $7.7tn in compensation to be paid to Africa by its past colonial rulers.
During a visit to Italy in August 2010, Gaddafi’s invitation to hundreds of young women to convert to Islam overshadowed (làm u ám) the two-day trip, which was intended to cement (hàn gắn, củng cố) the growing ties between Tripoli and Rome.
Inspired by uprisings in Tunisia and Egypt, Libyans began to hold protests against his regime (chế độ) in the eastern city of Benghazi in February of this year.
Gaddafi used military force (lực lượng quân đội) to quell (dẹp yên) demonstrations, but the protests escalated into (leo thang thành) an all-out armed conflict (xung đột quân sự toàn diện) , with NATO-led forces intervening.
On June 27, the brutal actions of the Libyan government were referred to the International Criminal Court, which issued arrest warrants for (trát bắt đối với)Gaddafi, one of his sons and his spy chief on charges of crimes against humanity (tội ác chống lại nhân loại).
Gaddafi repeatedly blamed the unrest (sự bất ổn) on al-Qaeda and a "colonialist plot". He called those opposed to him "rats", and alleged that they had been influenced by "hallucinogenic drugs (chất gây ảo giác)". In his last address (buổi nói chuyện, bài phát biểu) before rebels entered Tripoli, he accused "Western intelligence" of "working with al-Qaeda to destroy Libya".
On October 20, an NTC official reported that Gaddafi had been killed near Sirte after fighters liberated the deposed (bị hạ bệ) leader’s hometown.
Footage obtained by Al Jazeera appeared to (có vẻ như) show (cho thấy) Libyans dragging the body of their former leader through the streets.